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Emergency dental kit

D. Gassan y hamed

Life –threatening medical emergencies may occur in the dental environment .The dentist must be prepared to recognized & properly manage patient of medical emergencies in the dental office .

Emergency dental kit



Emergency dental kit




Emergency dental kit



Dentist should have training in the prevention , recognition & management of common emergencies like seizures , cardiovascular & respiratory distress , altered consciousness , chest pain & drugs related emergencies .

Adrenaline

It is indicated in
*anaphylactic shock (type one hypersensitivity ) precipitated by any material or drugs
*acute asthmatic attack
*cardiac arrest
Emergency dental kit



• *
it is available in concentration of 1:1000 for IM & subcutaneous
Dose
Volume of 1:1000
Age
300 mg
0.3 ml
2-3 years
500 mg
0.5 ml
6 years
500-1000 mg
0.5-1 ml
adult
• Mode of action of adrenaline
• -contraction of vascular smooth muscle so increase the blood pressure
• -increase the cardiac out put
• -relaxation of the bronchial muscle lead to re-establish airflow
• -inhibition of histamine release
It is contraindicated for pregnant because it will lead to decrease in the placental blood flow & may induce premature labour.

*Antihistamine (diphenhydramine , chlorpheniramine )

Antihistaminic drugs are useful in the treatment of the delayed allergic reaction & act as a competitive antagonist of histamine . The mode of action of these drugs by prevent access of histamine to it is receptor site in the cell
Emergency dental kit


Emergency dental kit


• Potential side effect of most antihistamines is a degree of cortical depression which causes sedation therefore chlorpheniramine is preferred
• over diphenhydramine as it has less sedative effect .

these drugs may given orally ,IM . subcutaneous & IV 4mg in adult (4-6) time daily . The maximum dose 24 mg daily
Emergency dental kit


Emergency dental kit




Emergency dental kit


Emergency dental kit

*Oxygen

It is the most important drug in the emergency kit Oxygenation prevent hypoxia that may be damaging the vital organs such as brain & heart

Administration :

-ensuring airway patency before oxygen is delivered -the airway may be re-established by using the head tilt & chin lift
-oropharyngeal airway may be used in the unconscious patient
-Face mask with an attached oxygen supply running at flow rate between 4-6/ mint


Emergency dental kit

*Nitroglycerine & Amyl nitrate

It is used as coronary vasodilators & immediate management of chest pain


Emergency dental kit


Emergency dental kit

Administration : sublingual tablet (300micrograme) spry (400micrograme)

Side effect :
• -sudden hypotension
• -headache & postural hypotension
• -flashing of face
• -tachycardia
• - tolerance is developed rapidly
• - unstable drug in tablet form

*Anticonvulsant ( diazepam , midazolam )

Convulsion may occur due to overdose or toxicity to the local anaesthesia , epileptic & febrile convulsion .

• Dose :

• midazolam 5mg/ml in 1, 2,5 & 10 ml vial
• Diazepam 5mg/ml in 2ml ampoules
Emergency dental kit


Side effect : respiratory depression & arrest , however with proper titration during administration this unlikely to occur

It is indicated in unconscious hypoglycemic patient(less than 2.5 mmol/l) . glucagon increase plasma glucose by stimulating glycogenolysis & gluconeogenesis in liver . An additional action is inhibition of glycogen synthesis & glucose oxidation .
Administration : in adult 1mg IM
In children up to 12 years 0.5mg IM
Antihypoglycemic: glucagon

Emergency dental kit

Salbutamol:

It is indicated in asthmatic patient & patient with allergic reaction manifested primarily by respiratory difficulty
Salbutamol is administrated by inhalation to produce the most rapid onset of action & minimize the overdose effect .

• .
Emergency dental kit

Hydrocortisone Dexamethasone:

These exogenous hydrocortisone should be administrated preoperatively to patient have adrenal insufficiency to prevent adrenal crisis & restore the normal physiological response to stress
Corticosteroid is indicated in

acute allergic reaction

prevention of recurrent episode of anaphylaxis

The dose varies according to the age &

situation ( 25-200 mg).
It is contraindicated in person of pre-existing
infection , peptic ulcer & diabetic mellitus
Emergency dental kit

• Atropine:

It is a parasympathetic blocking agent , it is recommended for the management of symptomatic bradycardia

Atropin acts to mantain adequate cardiac output & cerebral circulation . Large dose of atropine produce clinical signs of overdose which include hot dry skin , eadache , dry mouth , disorientation & hallucination . Atropine is contraindicated in glaucoma . It is available in 0.5 mg /ml in 1ml vial


Emergency dental kit

Aromatic ammonia

It is strong respiratory stimulant . It is available in silver gray vaporole which is crushed & placed under the victim's nose until respiratory is effected . It stimulate the respiratory & vasomotor centre of the medulla . it is indicated in vasodepressor syncope , respiratory depression & contraindicated in asthma

DRUGS FOR ADVANCED CARDIOVASCULAR LIFE SUPPORT :

These drugs should be included only by those dentist who have complete the course in ACLS . Essential ACLS drugs include epinephrine , oxygen , lidocain , atropine , dopamine , morphine sulphate & verapamil .

* Lidocain is considered the primary antidysrhythmic drug that developed after myocardial infarction. Over dose of lidocaine produce myocardial ,circulatory & CNS depression.


.
Emergency dental kit



* Dopamine is a chemical precursor of norepinephrin . in large dose stimulate both the ( Alfa & Beta ) adrenergic receptor . At lower dose dilate renal , mesenteric & cerebral arteries . It is also indicated in hypotension in the absence of hypovolmia . It is available in 200mg ,400mg , 800mg in 5ml ampole
Emergency dental kit

Morfine sulphat –meperidine *

These drugs are indicated for analgesia . the side effect of these drugs are potent central nervous & respiratory system depression .
They are contraindicated in head injury . Dose: morfine is available 8, 10, 15 mg/ml

Meperidine is come in 50, 100 mg/ml

* Verapamil it is calcium channel blocker drug . it is indicated in emergency cardiac care in treatment of paroxysmal supraventrcular tachycardia . It is available for injection as 25mg/ml in 2ml & 4ml.
Emergency dental kit




رفعت المحاضرة من قبل: صهيب عاصف الحيالي
المشاهدات: لقد قام 4 أعضاء و 56 زائراً بقراءة هذه المحاضرة






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