Nanomaterials in dentistry“Nano" is derived from the Greek word for 'dwarf' and it combines with a noun to form words such as nanometer (10-9 m), nanotechnology, and nanorobot.
Nanotechnology is the science of manipulating matter on molecular and atomic levels. It includes features as large as 100 nm.
Nanomaterials are those materials with components less than 100 nm in at least one dimension. These may include atoms clusters, grains, fibers, films, nanoholes, and composites from these combinations.
Nanomaterial properties vary majorly from other materials due to two reasons: 1. the increase in surface area and 2. quantum effects. Thus all properties, including electrical, optical and magnetic ones, are altered.
APPROACHES TO NANODENTISTRY (FABRICATION TECHNIQUES):
The fabrication techniques of nanosized structures can be divided into two approaches: “top-down” and “bottom-up”
1. The top-down approach: Creation of small structures by using bigger ones in guiding their assembly used in inducing Nanocomposite Restorative Materials, Nano Impression Materials, nano-Composite Denture Teeth, Nanosolutions, Nanoencapsulation, Implants, Bone replacement materials, etc..
2. Bottom-up fabrication approach: Assembly of small components into compound structures used in inducing Nanoanesthesia, Dental Durability and Cosmetics, Nanorobotic Dentifrice, Nanodiagnostics, etc.
Nanodentistry: a science and technology of diagnosing, treating and preventing diseases, and preserving and improving human dental health, using nanoscale structured materials.
TYPES OF NANOTECHNOLOGIES IN NANODENTISTRY:
A)) DENTAL NANOROBOTICS (Bottom-Up approach):
Nanorobots: have a diameter of about 0.5–3 microns and made of components sized from 1–100 nanometers and could be used in the following fields
Nanorobotic dentifrice (Dentifrobots)
Dental durability and cosmetics
Nanodiagnostics (Photosensitizers and carriers)
Therapeutic aid in oral diseases
Nanotherapeutics / Drug delivery
Diagnosis of oral cancer
B)) DENTAL NANOMATERIALS (Top-Down approach)Nanocomposites
Nano Light-curing glass ionomer restorative
Nano-composite denture teeth
Bone replacement (bone graft) materials
Nano sterilizing solution
• Increased hardness.
• Improved flexural strength, toughness and translucency.
• Decreased polymerization shrinkage (50%).
• Exceptional handling properties.
• High polish retention
• Higher translucency giving it more lifelike appearance
Impression materials: Traditional vinylpolysiloxanes have incorporated nanofillers to improved flow, hydrophilic properties and superior detail precision.
Nano-composite denture teeth: are made of Polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA) and homogeneously distributed nanofillers. Advantages:
• Excellent polishing ability and stain-resistant
• Superb esthetics
• Enhanced wear resistance and surface hardness
Nanoencapsulation: Specifically targeted release systems for delivery of vaccines, antibiotics and drugs with fewer adverse effects.
Dentifrices: are mainly made up of nanosized hydroxyapatite molecules that result in protective shell on tooth surface and may even repair damaged areas.
Bone graft materials: Various HA nanoparticles used in repairing osseous defects.
Nano-Coated Implants: Nanomaterials were used in the development of implant surfaces with definite topography and chemical composition leading to predictable tissue-integration.
very high strength
fine surface finish.
Nanoneedles: Nano-structured stainless steel crystals have been used to manufacture suture needles.
Nano sterilizing solution: Advantages:
Does not stain fabric
Require no protective clothing
Compatible with various impression materials.
C)) REGENERATIVE NANOTECHNOLOGY - Bio Mimicry (محاكاة الطبيعة)
Dentition renaturalization: In the future, old restorations may be removed and all the teeth remanufactured in nanotechnology to become identical to natural teeth.
Dentition replacement therapy: In the future, nanotechology may utilize genetic engineering, tissue engineering and tissue regeneration to grow whole new teeth in vitro.