THE PULP SYSTEMDental pulp and Cavites
The dental pulp: is the soft tissue component of the tooth it occupying the central part of the tooth and contain different types of pulpal tissue like the nerves, blood vessels ( arteries and venuls), and the lymphatic tissues. The outline form of the pulp chamber corresponds with the shape of the crown..
The function of the pulp:-Nutritive :-
With the presence of a large number of blood vessels in the pulp the tooth is provided by well nutrition through the blood circulation.
A nerve ending entering the pulp through the apical foramen and they branching to a small branches and anastomosis with each other providing a higher sensitive nerve supply the only sensation in the pulp which is the pain sensation.
Formative :-The primary function of the dental pulp is the formation of dentin, the pulp contain a different type of cell like the macro- phage, neutrophiles and fibroblast ( formation of collagen fiber) and the odontoblast which is responsible for dentine formation throughout the life.
Defensive :-The formation of reparative or irritation dentin is a defensive response to any form of irritation, whether it be mechanical, thermal, chemical, or bacterial in nature. The other defense mechanism is the pain sensation.
The pulp cavity is divided into1. Coronal pulp
2. Radicular pulp
Parts of the pulp:2. The pulp chamber :- It is a cavity like structure located at the center of crown\, the outline of pulp chamber taking the outline of the crown in some cases the pulp chamber contain all types of the pulp tissue. There is one pulp chamber in each tooth. It has six surfaces : occlusal( roof), mesial, distal, buccal, lingual and floor.
3- root canal orifice: an opening in the pulp chamber leading to the root canal.
B. Radicular part: which divided into the followings: 1.The root canals :- This canals located along the root and it is comeunited between the pulp chamber and the out line circulation through the apical foramen, the root may contain one or two root canal. 2.The lateral canals :- It’s a branch from the root canal open to the periodentium and its deferent in size from a large canal to a very small canal can not be seen by eye.
3.The accessory canals :- These minute canal branch from the lateral canal and open to out side to the periodontium.
4.The apical delta :- the apical third of the root , the root canal gives a very large number branch can be been only by the electron macroscope anatomists with each other and open to the outside to the periodintum forming a delta like area called the apical delta.
5.The apical foramen :- Its an opening communicated between the root canal and the out circulation
as the root begins to develop, the apical foramen is actually large then it becomes more constricted at the completion of root formation. its deferent in size and some time in number and position.
Types of configuration of root canal:Type I – one canal extends from the pulp chamber to the apex.
Type II – two separate canals leaving the pulp chamber and joining near the apex forming a single canal
Type III – one canal that leaves the pulp chamber and bifurcated in the apical third and open in one apical foramina.
Type IV : two separate and distinct canals extend from the pulp chamber to the apex.Type VI: two separate canals leave the pulp chamber, unite the body of the root and redivide close to the apex to exit as two pical foramen.
Type VII: one canal leaves the pulp chamber, divides into two, unite in the body of the root and finally redivide on two canals near the apex.
type VIII: three separate and distinct channels, extending from the pulp chamber to the apex.
one canal at apex Type I 1Type II 2
Type III 1
Two canal at apex Type IV 2
Type V 1 2
Type VI 2 1
Type VII 1 2 1 2
Three canal at apex Type VIII 3 31
Root and canal anatomyround, Kidney beam