Pharmaceutical preparations for external useD.r Jawnaa 2018
SuppositoryIt is a drug delivery system that is inserted into the rectum (rectal suppository ) , vaginal (vaginal supp) or urethra (urethral supp) where it dissolve .
It can be defined as a small piece of medicated substance , usually conical , ovoid , or cylindrical introduced into a body passage as the rectum or vagina where body heat causes it to melt .
Reasons of manufacturing the drug in the form of a suppository1- to avoid irritation of stomach
2-to get sustain action during the night
3-to get full dose in uncooperative patients such as children
4- to get local action in the intestine
5- in patients who can not taken oral therapy
RectocapsSupp . Shaped soft shell cap. With a lubricating film layer for rectal delivery of drug
1- they are coated so easy to apply
2- they offer the logical alternative when a drug cannot be swallowed because of nausea , vomiting and swallowing difficulties or because high dose has to be used
3-it is ideal dosage form for babies and children
4- they are stable in tropics ,so they retain their shape and action even at high temperatures .
OintmentIs semisolid homogenous , viscous preparation consist of a fatty substance mixed with an active drug . The base may be either soft paraffin, wax,olive oit or vasaline .
The drug ,if insoluble in the base ,it should be in the finest possible state and be evenly distributed through out the base
The base of the oit is immiscible with water ,therefore is mostly suitable applied on dry surface such as arms , legs and trunk , the potency of oit is charged with its base
Eye ointmentThe contents are sterile and contains less concentration of the active ingredient, eye oit , also could be applied to the ear and nose.
It is semisolid preparation in which the drugs are mixed with a fatty base which is miscible with water , therefore it is suitable to be applied on wet surfaces
linimentIs semisolid or liquid preparation for external use only indented to be applied to the skin by friction, it must contains irritant substances such as camphor, friction of camphor at the site of the spasm or pain will cause irritation leading to local vasodilatation i.e. increase blood supply and relief spasm or pain.
LotionIs liquid preparation intended to be applied to the skin without friction , lotion differ from liniment in that it contains a cooling substances such as menthol
Lotion sometimes contain drug such as antiseptic or steroid.
Paints:Paints are liquids for application to the skin or mucous membranes.
Skin paints contain volatile solvent that evaporates quickly to leavea dry resinous film of medicament.
-Throat paints are more viscous due to a high content of glycerol, designed to prolong contact of the medicament with the affected site.
Eye dropIt is watery isotonic sterile solution intended to be instilled into the eye by a dropper
it contains one or more of the following ingredients :
4-mydriatic or miotic drugs
5- decongestant drugs
Note: Ocusert pilocarpine system
Nasal dropWatery solution intended to be instilled into the nose by a dropper which is usually contains one or more of the following ingredients
Ear dropWatery or oily solution indented to be instilled into the ear and it is usually contains one or more of the following ingredients :
Substance which solubilize the wax , antibiotic , steroid , alcohol and antifungal
Oit like preparation contains medication with adhesive materials contain high preparation of powder , so it is more absorpable and more sterngth than oit.
A colloid in which the solid disperse phase forms a network in combination with fluid continuous phase ,resulting in a viscous semi rigid solution
It is thicker than solution, often a semisolid emulsion in an alcohol base tend to be drying
There is high risk of hypersensitivity ,it is useful for the scalp and body folds ,but fissures and erosions should be avoided because of drying and stinging of alcohol base
PlasterSolid adhesive preparation applied to skin to protect , sooth and lesser pain , and divided to 2 types :
1- with medicament2- without medicament
Gargles and mouth washAre liquid solution pleasant taste and odour to runs and remove the debris from the mouth
They are aqueous solutions used in the prevention or treatment of throat infections.
Usually they are prepared in a concentrated solution with directions for the patient to dilute with warm water before use.
-Mouthwashes:These are similar to gargles but are used for oral hygiene and to treat infections of the mouth.
Gargles and mouth wash
A spray is a liquid kept under pressure in a can or other container, which you can force out in very small drops.
Aerosols = Gaseous dosage forms• These drugs are designed to carry the drug into the respiratory tract, on the skin and mucous membrane
• Inhaler (asthma, other respiratory diseases; everyday use)
Nebulizer (device to administer medication in form of a liquid mist to airways)
1.Metered – dose inhalerA device that delivers
A device that delivers a measured amount of medication as a mist that patient can inhale
It consists of a pressurized canister of medications in a case with a mouthpiece , they are portable, efficient and convenient
Metered – dose inhaler
Metered – dose inhaler35
Metered – dose inhaler
A very precise time release method of delivering a drug
Cutting a path can affect the dose delivered
The release of the active component from a transdermal delivery systems can be controlled by diffusion through the adhesive which covers the whole patch by diffusion through a membrane
There is also transmucosal patch like fentanyl patch , lidocaine patch
The administration of drug by transmucosal routes offers the advantage of being a relatively
has the potential for greater flexibility in a variety of clinical situations.
The transmucosal route includes oral, nasal, vaginal, and urethral and presents a challenge in the field of novel drug delivery technology.
The oral transmucosal delivery, especiallythe buccal and sublingual routes have been explored successfully for a number of drugs in the last few decades with novel approaches emerging continuously.
The transmucosal membranes
are relatively permeable, have a rich blood flow and hence allow the rapid uptake of a drug into systemic circulation to avoid first pass metabolism.