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Computer Components

Computer Science Lab
.Control and System Eng. Dept
.College of Electronics Eng
Ninevaha University

HARDWARE & SOFTWARE

All of the electronic and mechanical equipment in a computer is called the hardware. Examples include:

Motherboard
Hard disk
RAM
Power supply
Processor
Case
Monitor
Keyboard
Mouse
Hardware

HARDWARE & SOFTWARE

The term software is used to describe computer programs that perform a task or tasks on a computer system. Software can be grouped as follows:

System software - Operating System etc.
Utility programs - Antivirus etc.
Applications Software - Word, SolidWorks etc.
Software

PC COMPONENTS

Computer system - collection of electronic and mechanical devices operating as a unit. The main parts are:

System unit
Monitor
Keyboard
Mouse
Speakers

2
3
4
5
1

SYSTEM UNIT

PERIPHERALS

Plotter

SYSTEM DEVICES
An integrated circuit (IC) supplied on a single silicon chip. It’s function is to control all the computers functions. The main processor manufacturers are:AMD - Athlon and Turion (mobile)Intel - Pentium and Centrino (mobile) Processor
AMD
Processor

SYSTEM DEVICES

SYSTEM DEVICES
Primary storage - main computer memory. Data, programs currently in use are held in RAMVolatile - contents of memory are lost if the computer is turned off Module - memory IC’s on a circuit board Random Access Memory (RAM)
IC’s Memory
Module

SYSTEM DEVICES

Memory is sold in modules:DIMM’s (dual inline memory module) for desktop computersSODIMM’s (small outline dual inline memory module) for notebook computers. DIMM
Module
SODIMM
Module

SYSTEM DEVICES

DIMM’s and SODIMM’s are available in modules of 256MB, 512MB, 1GB, 4GB The current technology is called DDR (double data ram) and there are three types: DDR1, DDR2, DDR3Any particular computer system is only compatible with one type. Module name
Module capacity
Module type
Module speed

SYSTEM DEVICES

Motherboard
Processor Socket
Memory Sockets
Ports
PCI Slots
Graphics Slot
Chipset

SYSTEM DEVICES

Chipset - controls data flow around the computer. It consists of two chips:

Northbridge - data flow between memory and processor - data flow between the processor and the graphic's card
Southbridge - controls data flow to the devices - USB, IDE, SATA, LAN and Audio - controls PCI slots and onboard graphics

SYSTEM DEVICES

Buses - a path through which data can be sent to the different parts of the computer system. Main buses:
Processor
RAM
Northbridge

All Memory
Southbridge

IDE
SATA
USB
LAN
Audio
Graphics Slot
PC-Express or AGP
PCI Slots
Onboard
Graphics
Front Side Bus
Memory Bus
Graphics Bus
Internal Bus
PCI Bus
PCI Bus

SYSTEM DEVICES

A computer power supply has a number of functions:

Converts Alternating current (AC) Direct current (DC)
Transforms mains voltage (240 Volts) to the voltages required by the computer. The main voltages are:

12 volts for the disk drives as they have motors
3.3 and 5 volts for the circuit boards in the computer
Power Supply

SYSTEM DEVICES

Uses advances power management (APM) to allow the computer go into a standby mode
Some have a switch to toggle between 240 volt supplies and 110 volt supplies.

The main connections are:
1
4
3
2
1
Main connector
Connects to the motherboard and supplies the 3.3 and 5 volt supply for the board.
2
Molex connector
Connects IDE hard drives and optical drives.
3
Berg connector
Connects floppy disk drives
4
SATA connector
Connects SATA drives

SYSTEM DEVICES

Computer ports are interfaces between peripheral devices and the computer. They are mainly found at the back of the computer but are often also built into the front of the computer chassis for easy access.
Ports at the rear of the computer
Ports at the front of the computer
Ports

SYSTEM DEVICES

Serial port - a 9-pin port. Often called Com ports - Com1, Com2 etc. Mice and external modems were connected to these ports. They are turquoise in colour.

SYSTEM DEVICES

SYSTEM DEVICES
PS/2 port - used to connect keyboards and mice to the computer. The keyboard port is purple and the mouse port is green

Modem port - used to connect a modem to a telephone line. RJ11 is the technical term for the port.

SYSTEM DEVICES

SYSTEM DEVICES

SYSTEM DEVICES

3
1
2
4
5
1
Processor and fan
Graphics card handles it’s own processing making it almost independent of the processor. 2
Board connector
AGP or PCI-Express
3
Memory
Graphics card has it’s own memory. This makes it much faster. Most new cards use DDR3 memory. 4
DVI connector
Digital output is supplied through this port.
5
VGA connector
Analogue output is provided through this port.
Graphics card

SYSTEM DEVICES

1
2
3
Sound card
1
PCI connector
Connects the sound card to a PCI slot
2
MIDI socket
Musical Instrument Digital Interface port is used to connect digital musical instruments to the computer.
3
Audio jacks
These are used to connect microphones, speakers, stereo systems etc to the computer.

SYSTEM DEVICES

allows computers join a network. Can be wired or wireless. The standard used is called Ethernet - covers wired and wireless networks.

The wired standards include:

Fast Ethernet - transmission speed of 100Mbps.
Gigabyte Ethernet - transmission speed of 1000Mbps.
PCI
PC card
USB
Network card

SYSTEM DEVICES

PCI
PC Card
USB

SYSTEM DEVICES

Internet access using a telephone line.Converts the digital computer data to analogue (Modulation) before transmission over the telephone line and converts the analogue data to digital (DEModulation) before transmission to the computer. The device gets it’s name from these two terms. The standard transmission speed of a modem is 56Kbps. PCI
USB
Modem

SYSTEM DEVICES

Primary storage (memory) - volatile - contents lost when power is turned off.Secondary storage (disk drives) - non-volatile - can store files when power is turned off.In memory, voltages are used to store data as binary 1’s and binary 0’s. It was decided to mimic the situation for secondary storage using magnetism instead of electrical voltages to represent the binary data. Hard Disk
Metal disk
(platter)
covered with iron particles.
Read-write
head

SYSTEM DEVICES

A metal disk (platter) is coated with tiny iron particles which can be magnetised to north and south to represent the binary digits 0 and 1.

A read-write head is used to magnetise the particles on the disk surface to represent the data held in RAM. The computer can now be switched off and a copy of the data is safe for later use.
Metal disk
(platter)
covered with iron particles.
Read-write
head

SYSTEM DEVICES

M/board
Master
Slave
Jumper

SYSTEM DEVICES

SATA (Serial Advanced Technology Attachment) allow faster data transfer speeds than IDE. There is no master/slave arrangement with SATA and each drive has it’s own cable. The cables are much smaller and allow better air circulation in the system unit. SATA
Cable
SATA
IDE
Motherboard connectors

SYSTEM DEVICES

Host
Powered
Mains
Powered
Hard disk drives are also now found in video recorders, digital music players, digital camcorders, digital cameras and mobile phones.

1 inch Microdrive

Microdrive

SYSTEM DEVICES

SYSTEM DEVICES
Most common arrangement is called QWERTY after the first six keys.
Other arrangements are available including Dvorak, ABCDEF, AZERTY etc.
QWERTY
Dvorak

SYSTEM DEVICES

Wireless keyboard

SYSTEM DEVICES

Mouse

Input device - uses point and click technology

There are two main types:

Ball mouse - uses a ball to roll across the surface and move rollers attached to sensors inside the mouse - reflecting the ball movement as cursor movement.

Optical mouse - camera takes thousands of images per second and sends them for digital processing. The red LED lights up the surface for the camera.
Ball mouse
Optical
mouse




رفعت المحاضرة من قبل: Mohammed Aldhanuna
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