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Female ReProductive system
AnatomY
The female reproductive organs can be subdivided into the
internal and external genitalia. The internal genitalia are those
organs that are within the true pelvis' These include the vagina'
uterus,cervix,uterinetubes(oviductsorfallopiantubes)'
and ovaries . The external genitalia lie outside the true pelvis'
These include the perineum, mons pubis, clitoris, urethral
(urinary) meatus, labia majora and minora' vestibule'
greater vestibular (Bartholin) glands' Skene glands' and
periurethral area'
Functions :-
Femalereproductivesystemisdesignedtocarryout
several functions'
The ReProductive CYcle
The female reproductive cycle is the process of producing an
ovum and readying the uterus.to receive a fertilized ovum to
beginpregnancy.Ifanovumisproducedbutnotfertilizedand
implanted in ttre uterine wall, the reproductive cycle resets itself
through menstruation. The entire reproductive cycle takes about
28daysonaverage,butmaybeasshortas24daysoraSlongas
36 daYs for some women

It produces the femare egg celrs neceissary for reproduction,

called the ova or oocytes. The system is designed to transport
the ova to the site of fertilization. conception, the fertilization of an egg by a spern, normalry occurs in the failopian tubes. The next step for the fertilized egg is to implant into the walls of the uterus, beginning the initiar stages of pregnancy. If fertirization
and/or implantation does not take place, the system is designed to menstruate (the monthry shedding of the uterine rining). In addition, the female reproductive system produces female sex hormones that maintain the reproductive cycre
Oogenesis and Ovulation
under the influence of foilicre stimurating hormone (FSH),
and luteinizing hormone (LH), the ovaries produce a mature
ovum in a process known as ovulation. By about l4 days into
the reproductive cycre, an oocyte reaches maturity and is
released as an ovum. Arthough the ovaries begin to mature
many oocytes each month, usually only one ovum per cycle is
released .
How Many Eggs Does a Woman Have?
The vast majority of the eggs within the ovaries steadily die,
until they are depreted at menopause. At birth, there are
approximately I million to 2 million eggs; by the time of
puberf, only about 300,000 remain. of these, only about 500
will be ovulated during a woman's reproductive lifetime. Anv
.remaining eggs gradually die out at menopause
Fertilization
the sperm cell is released into the female organ. The cells
make their way through to the top of the vagina, through the
1_

cervix and into tjre uter';s. But they do not stay there

-
they
.continue their journey into the fallopian tube and travel upward
If there is any ovum (egg cell) released, the egg cell and the
sperrn cells meet, the fimbriae catch the egg and direct it down
the fallopian fube to the uterus. It takes about a week for the
.ovum to travel to the uterus
when they meet, there are millions of sperrn cells, and they
will all meet the only egg. when the sperm cells meets the egg,
only the sperm cell that is able to break through the egg
membrane win . when the male and femare gametes fused in the
ampulla of the tube, the spermatozoa fertilize the oocyte after
undergoing the capacitation and acrosomar reaction in the sperm
head under influence of substance from corona radiata cells of
the oocytes then multiple fusion point between plasma
membrane of the oocytes and the outer membrane of the
acrosomes permit the release of acrosomal contents needed to
penetrate the corona radiata and zona pellucida. After a two-
week period of rapid cell division known as the germinal period
of development, the zygote forms an embryo. The embryo will
then implant itself into the uterine wall and develop there during
pregnancy
j

Fertilization

the diagram, notice how millions
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CcCf grrrrc ceBGf|L
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R.a916rrrr"E"taara
In4-r srrv \.rs'ro.rrr, rurce now mtilions of sperm cells all trying to break through the membrane of the egg cell
once a sperm fertirizes an egg ceil, it becom es a rygote. The rygote (fertilized egg) at this stage possesses half the DNA (characteristics) of each of its two parents. The zygote then divides itserf to form a very tiny bat cared an embryo.
14

Spim cat natua

Zygote-by mitotic division - blastomere stage - Morel a (12-
l6) cell stage - the inner the cell mass give the embryo and the
outer cell mass give the trophoblast ( the future placenta ) the
morela inter the uterine cavity 4 days after fertilization .
Implantation
The zygote stays in the fallopian tube for about3-4 days but
within 24 hours of being fertilized it starts dividing very fast
into many cells it keeps dividing as it moves slowly through the
fallopian tube to the uterus.ln human, implantation of a
fertilized ovum ( blastocyst stage ) is most likely to occur about
9 days after ovulation ,ranging befwee n 6-12 .
The trophoblast over the embryo give protiolytic enzymes to
penetrate deep befween the cells of endometrium at 6'h day after
fertilization at time of implantation ( the secretory endometrium
, the glands become coiled and highly edematous )
The blastocyst embedded itself in the stratum compactum of the
decidua most frequently in the upper and posterior part of the
5

uterine cavity producing sright projection into the uterine lumen.

The decidua:::--
Transformation of secretory endometrium to decidua by hormones, according to its reration to the embryo , it is divided into 3 parts
I-Decidua basaris :- site of pracentar attachment .
2---decidua capsu laris
3---decidua parietal is
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